Q1 What are the basic differences between VMware and Hyper-v ?

VMWare Vs Hyper-V

VMware vSphere
MS Hyper-V

Terminology To Virtual Machines
Distributed/Standard Switch
Virtual Switch

DRS – Distributed Resource Scheduler
PRO – Performance & Resource Optimization

Separated Power Management
Dynamic Optimization & Core Parking

Vmware tools also
Integration component also

Service console model
Parent partition model

Raw device in mapping
Pass-Through in mapping

Extend/Volume Grow
Expand Volume/Disk

Storage in vMotion
Quick Storage Migration

Resource Management
Fault Tolerance, Yes
Fault Tolerance, No

Application HA, Yes
Application HA, Yes(Failover Clustering)

Resource pools, Yes
Resource Pools, Yes(Host Groups)

VM Scalability
USB Support, Yes
USB Support, No

Supports comprehensive guest OS
Less Guest Support

Serial ports are 32 ports
These are only connected to Named pipes

Q2) What is the hardware version used in VMware ESXi 5.5?
Version 10

Below is the table showing the different version of hardware used in different VMware products along with their release version

Hardware Versions in VMware ESXi 5.5

Virtual Hardware Version

ESXi 5.5, Fusion 6.x, Workstation 10.x, Player 6.x

ESXi 5.1, Fusion 5.x, Workstation 9.x, Player 5.x

ESXi 5.0, Fusion 4.x, Workstation 8.x, Player 4.x

ESXi/ESX 4.x, Fusion 2.x/3.x Workstation 6.5.x/7.x,Player 3.x

Workstation 6.0.x

ACE 2.x, ESX 3.x, Fusion 1.x, Player 2.x

3 and 4
ACE 1.x, Player 1.x, Server 1.x, Workstation 5.x, Workstation 4.x

ESX 2.x, GSX Server 3.x

Q3) What is the difference between the vSphere ESX and ESXi architectures?

VMware ESX and ESXi are both bare metal hypervisor architectures that install directly on the server hardware.
Although neither hypervisor architectures relies on an OS for resource management, the vSphere ESX architecture relied on a Linux operating system, called the Console OS (COS) or service console, to perform two management functions: executing scripts and installing third-party agents for hardware monitoring, backup or systems management.
In the vSphere ESXi architecture, the service console has been removed. The smaller code base of vSphere ESXi represents a smaller “attack surface” and less code to patch, improving reliability and security.

Q4) What is a .vmdk file?

This isn’t the file containing the raw data. Instead it is the disk descriptor file which describes the size and geometry of the virtual disk file. This file is in text format and contains the name of the –flat.vmdk file for which it is associated with and also the hard drive adapter type, drive sectors, heads and cylinders, etc. One of these files will exist for each virtual hard drive that is assigned to your virtual machine. You can tell which –flat.vmdk file it is associated with by opening the file and looking at the Extent Description field.

Q5). What are the different types of virtualization?

Server Virtualization – consolidating multiple physical servers into virtual servers that run on a single physical server.
Application Virtualization – an application runs on another host from where it is installed in a variety of ways. It could be done by application streaming, desktop virtualization or VDI, or a VM package (like VMware ACE creates with a player). Microsoft Softgrid is an example of Application virtualization.
Presentation Virtualization – This is what Citrix Met frame (and the ICA protocol) as well as Microsoft Terminal Services (and RDP) are able to create. With presentation virtualization, an application actually runs on another host and all that you see on the client is the screen from where it is run.
Network Virtualization – with network virtualization, the network is “carved up” and can be used for multiple purposes such as running a protocol analyzer inside an Ethernet switch. Components of a virtual network could include NICs, switches, VLANs, network storage devices, virtual network containers, and network media.
Storage Virtualization – with storage virtualization, the disk/data storage for your data is consolidated to and managed by a virtual storage system. The servers connected to the storage system aren’t aware of where the data really is. Storage virtualization is sometimes described as “abstracting the logical storage from the physical storage.

Q6) What is VMware vMotion and what are its requirements?

VMware VMotion enables the live migration of running virtual machines from one physical server to another with zero downtime.
VMotion lets you:

1. Automatically optimize and allocate entire pools of resources for maximum hardware utilization and
2. Perform hardware maintenance without any scheduled downtime.
3. Proactively migrate virtual machines away from failing or underperforming servers.

Below are the pre-requisites for configuring vMotion

1. Each host must be correctly licensed for vMotion
2. Each host must meet shared storage requirements
3. vMotion migrates the vm from one host to another which is only possible with both the host are sharing a common storage or to any storage accessible by both the source and target hosts.
4. A shared storage can be on a Fibre Channel storage area network (SAN), or can be implemented using iSCSI SAN and NAS.
5. If you use vMotion to migrate virtual machines with raw device mapping (RDM) files, make sure to maintain consistent LUN IDs for RDMs across all participating hosts.
6. Each host must meet the networking requirements
7. Configure a VMkernel port on each host.
8. Dedicate at least one GigE adapter for vMotion.
9. Use at least one 10 GigE adapter if you migrate workloads that have many memory operations.
10. Use jumbo frames for best vMotion performance.
11. Ensure that jumbo frames are enabled on all network devices that are on the vMotion path including physical NICs, physical switches and virtual switches.

Q7) Clone Vs Template in VMware?

Clone: A Copy of virtual machine
-> Can’t be restore the cloned Virtual Machine.
-> Clone of an Virtual Machine also be created while the Virtual Machine is switched on
-> Cloning can be done in two ways namely Full Clone and Linked Clone.
-> A full type clone is an independent copy of a virtual machine that shares nothing with the parent virtual machine after the cloning operation. Ongoing operation of a full clone is entirely separate from the parent virtual machine.
-> A linked clone is a copy of a virtual machine that shares virtual disks with the parent virtual machine in an ongoing manner. This conserves disk space, and allows multiple virtual machines to use the same software installation.
-> Cloning a virtual machine can save time if you are deploying many similar virtual machines. You can create, configure, and install software on a single virtual machine, and then clone it multiple times, rather than creating and configuring each virtual machine individually.
Template – A master copy or a baseline image of an virtual machine that shall be used to create many clones.
-> Templates cannot be powered on or edited, and are more difficult to alter than ordinary virtual machine.
-> You can convert the template back to Virtual Machine inorder to update the base template with the latest released patches and updates and to install or upgrade any software and again convert back to template to be used for future deployment of Virtual Machines with the latest patches.
-> Convert virtual Machine to template can’t be performed, when Virtual machine is powered on.  Only Clone to Template can be performed when the Virtual Machine is powered on.
-> A template offers a more secure way of preserving a virtual machine configuration that you want to deploy many times.
-> While you are cloning a virtual machine or deploying a virtual machine by a template, resulting cloned virtual machine will be an independent of the original template or virtual machine.

Q8) What is a promiscuous mode in Vmware?

1. Promiscuous mode is a security policy which can be defined at the virtual switch or portgroup level
2. A virtual machine, Service Console or VMkernel network interface in a portgroup which allows use of promiscuous mode can see all network traffic traversing the virtual switch.
3.I f this mode is set to reject, the packets are sent to intended port so that the intended virtual machine will only be able to see the communication.
4. Example: In case you are using a virtual xp inside any Windows VM. If promiscuous mode is set to reject then the virtual xp won’t be able to connect the network unless promiscuous mode is enabled for the Windows VM.

Q9). What is the difference between Thick provision Lazy Zeroed, Thick provision Eager Zeroed and Thin provision?

Thick Provision Lazy Zeroed
1. Creates a virtual disk in a default thick format.
2. Space required for the virtual disk is allocated when the virtual disk is created.
3. Data remaining on the physical device is not erased during creation, but is zeroed out on demand at a later time on first write from the virtual machine.
4. Using the default flat virtual disk format does not zero out or eliminate the possibility of recovering deleted files or restoring old data that might be present on this allocated space.
5. You cannot convert a flat disk to a thin disk.

Thick Provision Eager Zeroed
1. A type of thick virtual disk that supports clustering features such as Fault Tolerance.
2. Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time.
3. In contrast to the flat format, the data remaining on the physical device is zeroed out when the virtual disk is created.
4. It might take much longer to create disks in this format than to create other types of disks.

Thin Provision
1. It provides on on-demand allocation of blocks of data.
2. All the space allocated at the time of creation of virtual disk is not utilized on the hard disk, rather only the size with utilized data is locked and the size increases as the amount of data is increased on the disk.
3. With thin provisioning, storage capacity utilization efficiency can be automatically driven up towards 100% with very little administrative overhead.

Q10) What is a snapshot?

A snapshot is a “point in time image” of a virtual guest operating system (VM). That snapshot contains an image of the VMs disk, RAM, and devices at the time the snapshot was taken. With the snapshot, you can return the VM to that point in time, whenever you choose. You can take snapshots of your VMs, no matter what guest OS you have and the snapshot functionality can be used for features like performing image level backups of the VMs without ever shutting them down.