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Q1) What is Android?

Android is a software package and linux based operating system for mobile devices such as tablet computers and smartphones.

It is developed by Google and later the OHA (Open Handset Alliance). Java language is mainly used to write the android code even though other languages can be used.

The goal of android project is to create a successful real-world product that improves the mobile experience for end users.

There are many code names of android such as Lollipop, Kitkat, Jelly Bean, Ice cream Sandwich, Froyo, Ecliar, Donut etc

Q2) What is Open Handset Alliance (OHA)?

It’s a consortium of 84 companies such as Google, Samsung, AKM, synaptic, KDDI, Garmin, Teleca, EBay, Intel etc.

It was established on 5th November, 2007, led by Google. It is committed to advance open standards, provide services and deploy handsets using the Android Platform.
Features of Android
After learning what is android, let’s see the features of android. The important features of android are given below:

1) It is open-source.

2) Anyone can customise the Android Platform.

3) There are a lot of mobile applications that can be chosen by the consumer.

4) It provides many interesting features like weather details, opening screen, live RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds etc.

It provides support for messaging services (SMS and MMS), web browser, storage (SQLite), connectivity (GSM, CDMA, Blue Tooth, Wi-Fi etc.), media, handset layout etc.
Categories of Android applications
There are many android applications in the market. The top categories are:

  • Entertainment
  • Tools
  • Communication
  • Productivity
  • Personalization
  • Music and Audio
  • Social
  • Media and Video
  • Travel and Local etc.

Q3) What is Android SDK?

Answer: To develop a mobile application, Android developers require some tools and this requirement is satisfied by “Android SDK” which is a set of tools that are used for developing or writing apps

It has a Graphical User Interface which emulates the Android environment. This emulator acts as an actual mobile device on which the developers write their code and then debug/test the same code to check if anything is wrong.

 Q4) What are the different versions of Android OS that you remember?

 

    Answer: Given below are the various versions of Android.

Version
Name

Android 8.0
Oreo

Android 7.0 – 7.1.2
Nougat

Android 6 – 6.0.1
Marshmallow

Android 5 – 5.1.1
Lollipop

Android 4.4 – 4.4.4
KitKat

Android 4.1 – 4.3
Jelly Bean

Android 4.0-4.0.4
Ice Cream Sandwich

 Q5) What is the difference between Mobile Application Testing and Mobile Testing ? 

Answer: Mobile app testing is the testing of applications on a device which mainly focuses on functions and features of the application.

And Mobile Testing is the testing of the actual mobile device and focuses on the mobile features like Call, SMS, Contacts, Media Player, inbuilt browsers etc.

 Q6) Name the languages supported for Android development.?

 

Answer: Java is the widely used language for Android development.

It also supports C/C++ and when used with Android SDK, it improves the performance speed too.

Q7) What are the advantages of Android Operating System?

 

Answer: It is an open-source and platform independent. It supports various technologies like Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc

 

Q8) Explain Android Architecture briefly.

Answer: Android architecture is in the form of software stack components.

 The below diagram describes the different layers in the Android architecture.

  • Linux Kernel: Linux Kernel is placed at the bottom of the software stack and is the foundation of the Android architecture. Using Linux kernel, Android provides a connection between the other layers of the software. It helps to develop drivers like the keypad, display, audio for device manufacture etc.
  • Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL): HAL provides an interface between device drivers and API framework. It consists of library modules which are specific to the hardware component.
  • Android Runtime: Linux kernel provides multi-tasking execution environment so that multiple processes can execute each process runs on its own instance of Android Runtime (ART). Android has core runtime libraries like Dalvik VM specific libraries, Java Interoperability Libraries, Android Libraries and C/C++ libraries.

Q9) Define and explain Android Framework.

Answer: Android framework is a set of API’s using which the Android developers write code for the mobile apps. It contains the methods and classes to write the programming code.

Android framework includes a different set of tools to create image pane, text field, buttons, etc. It also includes “Activities” with which the user interacts and “Services”, which are the programs that run in the background. It is a package of different components like Intents, Broadcast Receivers, Content Providers, etc.

Q10) Which components are necessary for a New Android project?

Answer: Whenever a new Android project is created, the below components are required:

  • manifest: It contains xml file.
  • build/: It contains build output.
  • src/: It contains the code and resource files.
  • res/: It contains bitmap images, UI Strings and XML Layout i.e. all non-code resources.
  • assets/: It contains a file which should be compiled into a .apk file.

Q11) Provide the important core components of Android.

 

Answer: The core components of Android operating systems are:

  • Activity
  • Intents
  • Services
  • Content Provider
  • Fragment

 

Q12) Explain briefly – what is meant by Activities?

 

Answer: Activities are the part of the mobile app which the user can see and interact with.

For Example, if you open an SMS app which has multiple activities like create new SMS, add a contact from the address book, write the content in the SMS body, send SMS to the selected contact, etc.

 

Activity keeps a track of the following:

  • Keeps track of what a user is currently looking for in an app.
  • Keeps a track of previously used processes, so that the user can switch between ongoing process and previous process.
  • It helps to kill the processes so that the user can return to their previous state

 

An activity is implemented as a subclass of Activity class as shown below:

Public class MyActivity extends Activity
{
}